six long months of toil and hardships and danger. We were in active service all the time we were in service. A company went out to Spokane and brought in Walker and Eels, the missionaries at that place.
The following names are of members of Capt. Lawrence Hall's company of Oregon volunteers, so far as I remember:
Thomas Cornelius, Robert Walker, Asa William, --- Mundon, Charlie Smith, John Lienberger, John Louisinall, Andrew Lienberger, Perry Northrup, John Zachary, John Garrish, --- Harper, ---Tupper, ---Tupper, Randall Yarbour, Noah Job, Isaac Butler, Alvin Brown, Tom Kinsey, Alvin Kinsey, Joe Scott, Abe Enyard, La Fayette Scroggins, Sherry Ross, William W. Walter.
W. W. WALTER
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 6th day of April, 1889.
Jas. S. Haviland, Jr.
STATE OF OREGON, County of Tillamook:
I, Isaac W. Smith, being first duly sworn, do depose and say: I am a resident of Tillamook County, State of Oregon; that I am in the seventy-fifth year of my age; that in the year 1847 I was commissioned by Governor Abernathy to raise a volunteer company of citizen soldiers to fight the Indians. I lived in what was then called Tualatin County (now Washington), near Hillsborough. I at once went to Portland and enlisted a company of men; the precise number I do not now remember. Immediately after the enlistment was completed the company elected Lawrence Hall, captain; Hugh O'Brien, first lieutenant; second lieutenant, John Inyard; orderly sergeant, Mr. Sheldon; I do not remember his initials. After electing all other officers the company was turned over to Colonel Gilliam, and we went immediately to The Dalles via the Columbia River. After a short delay at The Dalles we proceeded to the Des Chutes River. There we met and had a battle with the Indians. We had but one man wounded. One Indian we know was killed, and others wounded. The engagement lasted about two hours, when the Indians retreated. We then returned to The Dalles. On or about the 16th day of February, 1848, we left The Dalles for the Blue Mountains. We camped the first day at Ten-Mile Creek. The far-famed Joe Meek was with us, who was pleased to style himself "envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary from the republic of Oregon to the Government of the United States". He was with us when we fought the battle of Dry Plains. We were thirty-six hours without water.
After we had whipped the Indians at the Des Chutes three of their chiefs followed us to what is called Bubbling Springs, and told us that on the next day, at about 10 o'clock, the Cayuses would meet us and fight, and they did so. This was the "Dry Plain battle. In this engagement we had only one man wounded; some Indians were killed, but I can not now recall the number. This manner of fighting was such that it was hard to reach them. After this engagement we repaired to Walla Walla. We then marched to Whitman's Station, where we made our headquarters. W.D. Stillwell and I were appointed guards to conduct Joe Meek to the top of the Blue Mountains to avoid the Indians. Meek was on his way to Washington City, across the plains, with eight other men. We were in constant danger of hostile Indians; much of the time without water, and lived much of the time on half rations. Our bodies as well as our souls were tried. We were scarce of blankets and clothing, and were never safe from our lurking foes, who knew the country thoroughly, while we were comparatively ignorant of it. We were constantly harassed by conflicting reports, and were in a constant state of apprehension of Indian attacks. While we were camped at Whitman's Station we could not learn where the Indians were, so Colonel Gilllam started with a hundred men to see where they were. They found them at a stream called Tucannon, and we captured about 500 head of cattle and horses. This brought upon us about 400 warriors, and we lost all the stock we had captured, and we starved two days and one night, and the doctor told us to eat young grass. (I did not like the diet.) We killed two fillies, but hungry as I was I could not eat it. The night after the battle of Dry Plain we camped on the Umatilla River. We were in the service in all about six months.
ISAAC W. (his X mark) SMITH.
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 13th day of April, 1889. I. T. MAULSBY,
Notary Public of the State of Oregon for Tillamook County.
STATE OF OREGON, County of Washington, ss:
I, F. R. Cornelius, being first duly sworn, say that I was a member of Captain Lawrence Hall's company of Oregon mounted volunteers; that said company was organized on or about the 9th day of January, 1848. That the officers of said company were as follows, to wit
Lawrence Hall, captain; Hugh D. O'Brien, first lieutenant; John Enyart, second lieutenant; William Sheldon, orderly sergeant; Peter S. Enyart and T. R. Cornelius were sergeants, and two others who this affiant does not remember at this time. Said company was mustered into the service of the Territory of Oregon under the provisional government in accordance with the proclamation of George Abernathy, then governor. That the officers and men furnished their own horses, arms, and equipments, and clothing and ammunition partly. The Territory furnished very scant supply of provisions to last said company until they arrived into the Walla Walla Valley, or about fifty days; after which we supplied ourselves with provisions off of the enemy, consisting mostly of cattle which had been taken by them from former emigrations. Said company left Portland, Oregon, on or about the 10th day of January, 1848, furnishing their own transportation, traveling by trail up the Columbia River, crossing said river at Vancouver, Washington Territory, thence up on the north side to a point about 20 miles above the Cascades Falls, where we crossed over to the south side; thence to The Dalles; thence up the Columbia River to the mouth of Des Chutes River; thence up the said river on the east side for a distance of about 40 miles, where we were attacked by Indians, where we fought for about three hours, when the Indians withdrew, they being mounted on good horses, ours being worn out and almost useless, as they had had no forage after leaving Portland except what grass they could get, which was a very scarce article on the route that we had just traveled. Under such circumstances they declined to fight unless they had every advantage.
After reconnoitering round until night we camped until next day. Here we had our first ration of horse-meat. Thence we went on in a southerly direction for a few miles and found some caches of potatoes and corn, which supplied our wants until arriving at The Dalles, which we did two days later by crossing over Des Chutes River near the mouth of Tie Creek, and going directly by the Barlow route.
After remaining a few days at The Dalles said company started for Whitman's Station in the Walla Walla Valley by way of the old emigrant road. On reaching a point about, 10 miles beyond Well Springs, we met the Cayuses, where we had a, battle which lasted about four hours, when the Indians withdrew for the night and we remained on the ground for the night without water, foor, or wood. Next morning moved on to the Umatilla river and camped over night. From thence to the Hudson's Bay Company's fort, Walla Walla, now known as Wallula. Fronm thence to Whitman's Station, where we arrived on or about the 3d of March, 1848, after gathering the remains of the people who had been massacred by the Cayuses, which had been partially interred, but were dug out by the coyotes, or wolves. We buried them. From thence to the Umatilla River, where the Umatilla emigrant road comes off of the Blue Mountains.
This move was for the purpose of escorting J.L. Meeks's party of nine persons, who had been sent to Washington City with dispatches from the governor of Oregon to Congress. Here the company was divided, and about one half of the men went on with Meeks to the summit of the Blue Mountains, the other half reconnoitering round so as to prevent the Indians from knowing what number of men were in the mountains and what number returned, as the trip from Whitman's Slation had been made under cover of night. After two days spent on the Umatilla River and vicinity we returned to Whitman by the same route that we had traveled when leaving there. On arriving there the first thing was to gather the adobes from the ruins of the mission buildings and make a fort by building walls and filling in with earth. This fort we called Fort Waters.
On or about the 11th day of March we went in search of the Indians, and after traveling two days and night we found them camped on the Tucannon, about 4 miles above where it empties into the Snake River. On our approach they hoisted a white flag and asked for a talk, in which they claimed to be friendly Indians, and that they had no affiliation with the hostiles, but on discovering a lot of cattle and horses with the mission brand on them we surrounded about four hundred head of cattle and horses, and started for Fort Waters, but soon after found ourselves surrounded by about three hundred Indians, when a battle commenced we marching in a hollow square until nightfall, when we were forced to take shelter behind the banks of a small stream or ravine. The Indians increasing in numbers until about midnight, we were forced to surrender up the stock which they drove off. Next morning we took up the line of march toward the fort, when the battle was renewed, and continued until we reached the River Touchet, where the Indians made a desperate stand, and, after being charged on by the volunteers and forced to leave the crossing on the river, they withdrew from the contest, and said company proceeded towards the fort without further molestation, and succeeded in reaching Dry Creek, within about 10 miles of Fort Waters, that night, where we camped for the night, and, finding a few Indian horses, were able to get a fair supply of horse meat for supper, which was gratefully received and eaten with a relish, as we had been three days and two nights without eating or sleeping. On the next day we reached the fort, with P.A. Enyart and John Lanseynaught badly wounded. The company remained at the fort until on or about the 17th day of May, when we again started in pursuit of the Indians in the direction of the Palouse and Spokane countries.
On arriving at the Palouse country, and finding no signs of them, the company was divided, and a portion went in the direction of Fort Colville to escort Walker and Eels and their families from the Colville mission and out of the country, the remainder of the company returning by way of the Upper Palouse country, and crossing Snake River at a point then known as Red Wolf's Landing, arriving at the fort about the 4th of June. A few days later, on the arrival of the detachment from ColviIle, with Walker and Eels, said company started for Oregon City, Oregon, by way of The Dalles, and thence by the Barton road across the Cascade Mountain. On arriving at Oregon City, on or about the 26th day of June, 1848, were discharged.
T. R. CORNELIUS.
Subscribed and sworn to before me on this 20th day of April, 1889.
ALONZO A. PHILLIPS, Justice of the Peace, Cornelius, Oregon.
I, P.G. Northrup, of Mountain Dale, Washington County, Oregon, being sixty-five years of age, and following farming, being first duly sworn, say that I have been a member of what is known as Captain Lawrence Hall's Company of Oregon Volunteers, taking part in the campaign of 1848 against the Cayuse Indians; that on entering said service, or about the time of doing so, I have furnished and delivered to the commissary department that provided for said company 700 pounds of flour, 300 pounds of bacon, 3 pounds of powder, and 6 pounds of lead; that in February, 1848, while I was sick with the measles, near what is now Wallula, my rifle for which I, on entering the service, had paid $30 in United States gold coin was stolen out of the commissary wagon, where it had been stored during my sickness, and has never been found or restored to me again; that flour delivered at Portland, Oregon, then had a value of $5.50 per barrel; that bacon delivered in Portland, Oregon, then had a value of 18 cents per pound; that powder had a value then of 75 cents per pound; that lead then had a value of l0 cents per pound: that during said campaign I have furnished my own horse and provided myself with ammunition obtained at my own expense.
Subscribed and sworn to before me, the undersigned, this 24th day of May, A. D. 1889.
Notary Public for Oregon.